The outbreak was given wide pub- licity in the papers, and was used by the ministry to frighten the upper and middle classes. In a word, romanticism is religion. The rapid growth of secret societies and the increase in membership of the Masonic lodges, as well as a series of small outbreaks be- tween 1815 and 1817, showed that the restored monarchy was resting on the weakest of foundations. As the system worked out, the secret police of the various states, cooperating with that of Austria, functioned as a sort of Hapsburg administrative system from one end of the peninsula to the other. So he sum- mons Mephistopheles, the spirit of that growth and development which must involve the destruction of the old with the assumption of the new of experi- ence, in a word, in the only form that it can come to man.
It follows, however, that one who has no philosophy but this has no wisdom; he can say nothing that is worth carrying away; everything in him is attitude and nothing achievement. The important decisions were all made by the four great powers, to which group Talleyrand was admitted in January, 1815. His adaptation of the old Faust legend is one long passionate yearning for the rich- ness and the fullness of life. Additionally, the text is illustrated with more than 400 photographs that add visual context. The French, like the other peoples of Europe, seemed to be willing to accept anything that would assure a return of peace.
Indeed, the revolution had created such a fundamental cleavage in French society that until 1870 it proved impossible for any regime to maintain itself longer than two decades. Since our entire Christianity consists in the inner or new man, and its soul is faith, and the effects of faith are the fruits of life, I regard it as of the greatest importance that sermons should be wholly directed to this end. Cobbett went to America, whence he began to write home of the glories of a republic with no established church or tides. They are, however, self-sufficient, and can be used for a variety of purposes, either with or without source materials. In the midst of the general distress and dis- couragement in France, the allies sent Napoleon to Elba and Louis returned from England. The next four years, from 1816 to 1820, were, from the political angle, the calmest of the Restoration.
While the Congress was still in session, Napoleon had escaped from Elba, and on March i, 1815, had landed on the south coast of France. As they learn about kingdoms, intellectual movements, and the fine arts, students will also discover much about famous and ordinary people, their family life, sexuality, life expectancy, and daily concerns. As Mazzini pointed out later, their great weakness lay in their failure to think and plan in terms of the whole peninsula. Far more influential were individuals like Cobbett and groups like the Hampden Clubs. It was the voicing of the con- viction that life is broader than intelligence, and that the world is more than what physics can find in it.
A moderate opposition was growing both within the Tory ranks and among the Whigs. The newspapers and the periodical press, however, continued to present a grave problem to the ministry. He and several others suffered exile or im- prisonment. Hunt was a forceful mob-orator; Thistlcwood, the chief figure in the Cato Street Conspiracy of 1820, was a violent demagogue. The development of this tradition led to the emergence of philosophy among the Greeks, then influenced the formation of Christianity, and was appropriated and elaborated upon by the Arabs during the Middle Ages. An invaluable tool for the study of Western civilization, the Handbook is an essential complement to readings in primary and secondary sources such as those in the nine-volume University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization. It is only fair to say, however, that the so-called Holy Alliance was for Alexan- der only a makeshift, a mere fragment of a much larger scheme for the re- construction of Europe in accordance with advanced principles.
Adopting a thematic structure, the book traces the rise of Western power through a series of revolutions-social, political, technological, military, commercial, and industrial, among others. The ministers, falling into clumsy methods of military repression, depended for information not on competent detectives but on the tales of private spies and on agents provocateurs. Their language was often violent but their program called only for repeal of the Corn Laws and reform of parliamentary representation. The First World War Chapter 25. The expensive medieval system of fallowing ground was gradually abandoned; indeed it could be abandoned because superior ways of enriching the soil were discovered experimentally.
The Council of State, made up of princes of the royal house, heads of the army, departmental chiefs, and nobles from the various provinces, brought the scattered districts of Prussia under one central administration. Over the whole peninsula lay the shadow of Haps- burg domination. In Italy, besides the enlargement of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Bourbons were restored to Naples, though only after the congress broke up, just as shortly before they had been restored to France and Spain. In 1816 the representatives of the princes met for the first time in a Diet at Frankfort. An effort to protect the English wool manufacturers against the competition of Oriental cloth actually helped to build up England's domestic cotton industry. But when he conjures up the Earth-Spirit and sees the mon- strous vision of all life spread before him, he cringes; not at one leap, not the whole of life, is given to any mortal to enjoy.
In Germany the theological and political controversies that culminated in the Thirty Years' War had accentuated the tendency to emphasize doctrinal orthodoxy and correct belief at the expense of the religious and moral life. Turmoil between the Wars Chapter 26. The Age of Dissent and Division, 1500—1564 Chapter 14. Philosophy, the highest wisdom, seeks thus to interpret phenomena in terms of their signif- icance, their purpose in the whole, their value in serving the great all- embracing ideal of the universe. So long as there was a common inspiration, hatred of the old system, and a common interest, the demands of the middle classes, they could well cooperate. In the Kingdom of Piedmont Victor Emmanuel I and his staff returned to Turin wearing powdered wigs, and the monarch soon instituted a general clearing-out of much that the French had introduced. To make matters worse the regent and Lord Sidmouth, the home secretary, without waiting to make inquiries, sent their congratulations to the local authorities.
If a Spener and a Wesley appealed to intuition and faith to support the old, a Rousseau could with equal facility use them to confirm a burning zeal for a new order. Metternich was by aptitude and training a diplomat rather than an administrator, and after 1815 he was inclined to rely too exclusively on diplomacy for the support of the existing system. And when the spirit of romanticism had finally captured a large part of the intellectual classes, the orthodox realized with amazement that faith was an even more wild and wayward thing upon which to found an established system than dangerous reason itself. The Industrial Revolution and Nineteenth-Century Society Chapter 20. Her first book was A Common Stage: Theater and Public Life in Medieval Arras 2007. Additionally, Spare Me the Details! This volume can stand alone as the primary source reader for the first half of a Western Civilization course or be paired with Michael Burger's overview text, The Shaping of Western Civilization, Vol. It put an end to the barren rationalism of the eighteenth century; it substituted im- mediate experience for reasoned demonstration, direct knowledge for indirect, in the religious sphere, and so circumvented the skeptics whom the apologists were im- potent to overcome; it brought the feelings once more into repute, and aided the nineteenth century reaction against the narrow intellectualism of the eighteenth; it gave a new meaning and an independent value to religion; it promoted individual- ism and emancipation from the bondage of ecclesiasticism; and, above all, it vital- ized and revived religion throughout the length and breadth of the land.
The nation fortified itself against the new ideas by calling up the old, and made the ages of faith and of imagination a defense from the age of reason. Now the liberals complained that, although it was the German people who had defeated Napoleon, it was only these same cowardly princes who were profiting by the peace settlement. Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had been thrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality. Tireless textile machinery fed out millions of bolts of cloth for merchants to sell. He does; but he finds also, as the ro- manticists felt in rejecting eighteenth-century science, that not even perfect science, perfect truth, will suffice; it is life, not the picture of life, for which he yearns. The Cold War World: Global Politics, Economic Recovery, and Cultural Change Chapter 28.